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How to decarbonise by 2050

Improved technologies, incubated by leading energy companies and new ventures, will be needed to realise decarbonised vision

Decarbonisation is challenging because of the energy system’s sheer size; 63,000TWh of energy was consumed globally in 2018. To put this in context, this is equivalent to a kitchen toaster running 24 hours per day, 365 days per year, for every one of the world’s 7.7bn inhabitants. Most energy consumption is invisible to consumers, but it is nevertheless crucial to their lifestyles. Over half of all the world’s CO2 emissions stem from agriculture, metals, materials, fertilizers, manufacturing and distribution: i.e. the inputs into the products we consume and the buildings in which we consume them. Energy consumption is also woefully unequal. The wealthiest 1.3bn in the developed world make

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